UNGA- SPECPOL

“This Organization is the cornerstone of multilateralism and has contributed to decades of relative peace. But in the end, it comes down to values, and today there’s a huge threat to these values based on fear. It’s time to reconstruct relations between people and leaders – national and international. Time for leaders to listen and show that they care, about their own people and about the global stability and solidarity on which we all depend. We have to work together to move from the fear of each other to trust in each other.”

The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the UN. Its main tasks involve discharging deliberative functions and policy-making. This is the only organ of the UN in which all the 193 member nations have equal representation; one nation, one vote. Along with the voting member nations, it also has two observer nations as its members. The Special Political and Decolonization Committee is the fourth of the six main committees of the UNGA. It considers a broad range of issues covering a cluster of five decolonization-related agenda items. The debate in the UNGA SPECPOL is spirited, as delegates attempt to balance their responsibilities towards their nations and the committee as a whole.

AGENDA: Reconciling the Right of Data Privacy with Global Security
Data protection refers to the practices, safeguards, and binding rules put in place to protect your personal information and ensure that you remain in control of it and it is required due to increase in difficulty for people to maintain control of their personal information in an online environment where data is transferred instantaneously. It is not clear, however, that the public policy being developed in any country is a thoughtful reaction to the promises and perils of today’s digital economy.

The reason for this potentially counter-productive state of regulatory affairs is the failure of any polity to confront the meaning of privacy or the specific privacy harms that privacy regulation is meant to protect against. There ought to be a greater effort among policymakers to correlate what companies are required to do to protect privacy with actual, identified harms or abuses.
Government action is plainly essential to address privacy violations that result in pecuniary injury, such as identity theft or financial fraud. However, the value to society of the highly prescriptive (and formalistic) requirements or proposals of the EU’s General Data Protection, the new California Consumer Privacy
Act, or the “White Paper of the Committee of Experts on a Data Protection Framework for India”, is debatable.

In the European Union, data protection is a fundamental right, and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the new framework for protecting that right. Even with the criticisms, it has faced, other countries are looking to the GDPR as they develop or implement their own laws to protect data.
As Europe’s GDPR is fully implemented, complied with and enforced in the coming year and years, as the impacts of California’s new EU-like law are assessed, and as India chooses a path forward for its new privacy framework, the world has to judge whether policymakers there and elsewhere around the globe have regulated well or over-regulated badly.

UNHRC

Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere; – Martin Luther King Jr. Violation of Human Rights is the greatest injustice that can be carried out in any corner of the world. Even if one person’s rights are violated anywhere, it makes the whole of humanity culpable. The current scenario of world politics leaves a lot to be desired. You go to any part of the world and you will see millions of people who will tell you stories about how their rights were or are still being violated. The world is in a state of chaos.
It therefore becomes increasingly necessary for the people of the world to arrive at a platform where they can discuss, debate, deliberate and come to common terms to uphold the rights of individuals and by virtue of that, the whole of humanity.
The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. It has the ability to discuss all
thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It meets at the UN Office at Geneva.

AGENDA : The Treatment of Uighur Muslims by China

The Uyghur Muslims are Turkish ethnicity who lives in east and central Asia. Today, they primarily live in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, where they are one of the fifty- five officially recognised ethnic minorities. China has been accused of treating these minorities in a pathetic way and discriminating them in almost every field. Recently, It was sharply criticized for its mass detention of members of Muslim Uyghur community but China has pushed back claiming them to be politically motivated accusations. Since the alleged abuses are taking place in one of the China’s most remote areas, it becomes hard to acquire first hand evidence and because of this most of the Muslim world is unaware with the actual situation. Countries like Pakistan and the Gulf states do not want to damage their trade relations with China who is their potential ally against the west and the U.S. and therefore did not respond to requests to comment for this story. Turkish Muslims and Uyghurs from the far western region of China share ethnicity and have close cultural and religious ties. Recently, there were violent protests in Turkey when Uyghurs in China were not allowed to fast during Ramadan. U.S. lawmakers have urged President Donald Trump’s administration to impose sanctions including asset freeze and visa bans on Chinese officials and companies allegedly tied to a stifling security crackdown and the mass internment of ethnic minority Muslims in camps in a far western region. On this point, China replies by saying that treatment of Muslims by U.S.A. is not an ideal one and U.S.A. lawmakers have no right to interfere in other countries’ affairs. Also China claims to exclude Uyghur Muslims’ residential area from its one child policy. In recent times, the issue has taken new dimensions.

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UNCSW

CSW is a functional commission of Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) established on 21 June 1946. It was initially comprised of fifteen women representatives of governments under the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The commission’s mandate is to examine the steps being taken in order to achieve gender equality, identify difficulties, and agrees on global standards and to come up with solutions that should be used regarding the promotion of empowerment of women worldwide in its annual gatherings at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. The CSW not only brings representatives of governments but also non-governmental organizations and individuals who are mostly women, to the meetings.

The Commission currently has 45 member states that are elected every 4 years on the basis of their geographical location: thirteen members from the African continent, eleven from Asia, nine from Latin America and the Caribbean, eight from Western Europe and other states and four from Eastern Europe.
Commission’s main work includes multi-year work programmes to estimate progress and make recommendations to increase the implementation of Platform for Action. Theme for 2018 was ‘Challenges and opportunities in achieving gender equality and the empowerment of rural women and girls.’ Theme for 2019 is ‘Social protection systems, access to public services and sustainable infrastructure for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.’ It considers one priority theme, based on Beijing Declaration and Platforms for Action. Its major work also includes discussing and finding solutions about contemporary issues, trends, focus areas which affect women and require timely consideration. Status of women has been in question ever since and it doesn’t seem to find any answers anytime soon.CSW tries to mitigate that wide gap between what happens on paper and how reality unfolds

Agenda: Empowering Rural Women to Achieve Gender Equality

ILO Director of Sectoral Policies, Alette van Leur, has called for urgent action to overcome the hurdles rural women face in the world of work. "Women in rural areas face constraints in engaging in economic activities. Rural women are less likely to be wage earners, and when they are, they earn less than men."

Promoting gender equality and women’s economic empowerment go hand in hand. Both are important in ensuring that women enjoy their human rights and can contribute to inclusive and sustainable development. Equality of opportunity and treatment is a human right and as such enshrined in
international labour standards, and laws of nations across the world. However, merely having a law in place has never guaranteed it’s application. In a world which is wrought with women fighting for their basic needs, bringing women in rural areas at par with the other groups in a society is not only the job of the legislature, but rather, it is for each individual to participate in the interests of more inclusiveness.
This inclusiveness shall ensure that women across all economic spectrums are given due regard. HNLU IMUNC 2019, in simulating the UNCSW, has taken a step towards this. With the agenda focusing on parity of women from rural areas, it presents a platform for young minds to engage in discussions to make policies more inclusive and to take substantial steps towards the elevation of women.

UNSC

The most powerful division of the UN is the Security Council, which all member states are bound by the UN Charter to obey. The Council comprises the representatives of fifteen member governments. Five of these are permanent members: China, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Russia. Each of these five states has a veto in the Council, which means any one of them can stop any decision they do not like. Ten other states, elected by the General Assembly, sit in the Council for a period of two years, after which ten different states are chosen.

The Security Council has unique responsibility and decision making powers and has a range of tools at its disposal. When faced with a potential conflict, the first response of the Council is to recommend to the parties that they reach agreement through peaceful means. The Council may appoint, or ask the UN Secretary General to appoint, special representatives to assist and guide efforts towards conflict resolution. In cases where conflict is occurring, the Council may issue ceasefire directives, send in UN peacekeeping forces or use enforcement actions, such as sanctions. With or without agreement of national governments, the Council can take steps to protect civilians caught in the conflict, for example by allowing access across national borders for humanitarian organisations. The Council can direct Government’s to limit stockpiling of certain weapons or disarm, for example by nuclear non-proliferation and destruction of chemical weapons. The Council’s day-to-day functions include the review of UN peacekeeping operations, consultations on specific country situations and monitoring the implementation of UN sanctions regimes through the work of its sanctions committees.

AGENDA: Ending the War in Yemen

The world has turned a blind eye to what's happening in Yemen… right now we are so under-resourced for this crisis, it’s extraordinary. The humanity doesn’t work anymore here.” – Jamie McGoldrick, the UN Humanitarian Coordinator in Yemen What broke out as a civil war in Yemen, has now escalated into a ffullfledgedcrisis in the war-torn country. Ideally, this crisis should have sent alarm bells ringing across the globe and it should have been curbed before turning into a crisis of such scale and magnitude. Unfortunately, UN reports suggest that countries have overlooked the calamity and have reacted only according to their foreign interests.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the then incumbent Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi militia. Both claim to constitute the Yemeni government. Houthi forces controlling the capital Sana'a, and allied with forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, have clashed with forces loyal to the government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, based in Aden

In 2015, Saudi Arabia formed a coalition of Arab states to defeat the Houthis in Yemen. The coalition includes Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan and Senegal. Several of these countries have sent troops to fight on the ground in Yemen, while others have only carried out air attacks. The US government regularly launches air attacks on al-Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS) targets in Yemen, and recently admitted to having deployed a small number of troops on the ground. The US, along with other western powers such as the UK and France, has also supplied the Saudi-led coalition with weapons and intelligence. Iran has denied arming the Houthi rebels, but the US military said it intercepted arms shipments from Iran to Yemen this

March, claiming it was the third time in two months that this had occurred. Iranian officials have also suggested they may send military advisers to support the Houthis. Yemen's war is far more complex than a Saudi-Iranian, Sunni-Shia conflict. But the silver lining in this conflict, like in all catastrophes of such type is that The best way to solve problems and to fight against war is through dialogue.

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India’s Parliament, with the Upper house being the Rajya Sabha. The House is an elected body using adult Universal suffrage consisting of total 552 members known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Currently it is working at a strength of 543.The Lok Sabha (House of the
Leaders) was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952.
The Lok Sabha which is the more representative chamber of the Parliament performs a number of useful functions. It represents the people of India as a whole.

The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and directions issued by the Speaker from time to time there regulate the procedure in Lok Sabha. The items of business notice of which is received from the Ministers/ Private Members and admitted by the Speaker, are included in the daily List of
business which is printed and circulated to members in advance. The Speaker presides over the sessions of the House and regulates procedure.

The Lok Sabha holds prime importance in the working of the Indian democracy. Being the voice of the people of the country, it has the function of deliberating on various policies and issues relating to the country. With national interest as its prime objective, Lok Sabha is the heart of what India truly believes in, i.e. reconciling different viewpoints and manifesting it into something that is greater than individual interest.

Agenda: Understanding the Religious Rights with special focus on Anti Conversion Bill

The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the Lower house of India’s bicameral Parliament, with the Upper house being the Rajya Sabha members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies. Members hold their seat for five
years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The composition of Lok Sabha envisaged by the Constitution of India with maximum strength of the House is 552. Under the current laws, the strength of Lok Sabha is 545. The main business of the House may be consideration of a Bill or financial business or consideration of a resolution or a motion.

Freedom of religious and belief is a recognized right in international law. In order to understand, interpret, develop and implement this right, it is important to go back and analyse the fundamental reasoning behind this right and when talking about religious right “anti- conversion bill” also comes into picture. India’s
Freedom of Religion Acts or anti-conversion laws are state-level statutes that have been enacted to regulate religious conversions.  The laws are in force in eight out of twenty-nine states. While there are some variations between the state laws, they are very similar in their content and structure.  All of the laws seek to prevent any person from converting or attempting to convert, either directly or otherwise, another person through “forcible” or “fraudulent” means, or by
“allurement” or “inducement.”  
This year at Lok Sabha our matter for discussion will be same where young minds will have fruitful discussion about this very fragile as well as a very controversial issue of our country. India, a land of diversity has faced many difficulties on this issue and situation doesn’t seem to get better anytime soon.
We hereby at IMUNC thus seek to reach at a consensus on the very profounding agenda of understanding the religious rights in reference to the Anti-Conversion Bill and hope for a productive deliberation to take place to fulfil the same aim.